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英语语法之宾语从句讲解
2016-01-07 13:45
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  一.宾语从句的定义

  置于动词、介词等词性后面起宾语作用的从句叫宾语从句。宾语从句的语序必须是陈述语序。谓语动词、介词、动词不定式,v.-ing形式后面都能带宾语从句。有些形容词(afraid,sure,glad等)之后也可以带宾语从句。

  二.宾语从句中引导词的用法

  在复合句中作主句的宾语,引导词有:

  连词:that (that 常可省略),whether, if

  代词:who, whose, what ,which

  副词:when ,where, how, why 等。

  (一)that引导的宾语从句(在非正式场合that可以省略)

  可跟that从句做宾语的动词有:

  say, think, insist, wish, hope, demand, imagine, wonder, know, suppose, see, believe, agree, admit, deny, expect, explain, order, command, feel, dream, suggest, hear, mean, notice, prefer, request, require, propose, declare, report等。

  例句:The boy believes that he will travel through space to other planets.

  注意事项:当主句谓语动词是 think, believe, suppose, expect 等词,而宾语从句的意思是否定时,常把否定转移至主句表示。

  例句:I don’t think it is right for him to treat you like that.

  在以下情况中that不能省略

  当句中的动词后接多于两个由that引导的宾语从句时,靠前个that可省,但后面的that不可省。

  例句:He said (that) you were too young to understand the matter and that he was asked not to tell you.

  当主句的谓语动词与that宾语从句之间有插入语时,that一般不可省。

  例句:Just then I noticed, for the first time, that our master was wearing his fine green coat and his black silk cap.

  当that从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时,that不可省。

  例句:I can’t tell him that his mother died.

  注意事项:许多带复合宾语的句子,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子后部,而用it作形式宾语。

  例句:I find it necessary that we should do the homework on time.

  (二)由whether,if 引导的宾语从句

  由whether(if)引导的宾语从句,实际上是一般疑问句演变而来的。意思是“是否”。宾语从句要用陈述句语序。一般说来,在宾语从句中whether与if可以互换使用,但在特殊情况下if与whether是不能互换的。

  例句:I wonder whether(if) they will come to our party.

  只能用whether,不能用if引导的宾语从句

  在带to的不定式前

  例句:We decided whether to walk there.

  在介词的后面

  例句:I’m thinking of whether we should go to see the film.

  在动词后面的宾语从句时

  例句:We discussed whether we had a sports meeting next week

  直接与or not连用时

  例句:I can’t say whether or not thet can come on time.

  只能用if不能用whether引导的宾语从句

  if引导条件状语从句,意为“如果”

  例句:The students will go on a picnic if it is sunny.

  if引导否定概念的宾语从句时

  例句:He asked if I didn’t come to school yesterday.

  引导状语从句even if(即使)和as if(好象)时

  例句:He talks as if he has known all about it.

  (三)连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句

  这样的宾语从句实际上是由特殊疑问句变化而来的,宾语从句要用陈述句语序。用于这种结构的动词常常是:see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, show, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, discover, understand, inform, advise等。

  英语中的连接代词有:who,whom,whose,which,what,在句中担任主语、宾语、定语或者表语。

  例句:Can you tell me whom you are waiting for?

  英语中的连接副词有:when,where,why,how,在句中担任状语的成分。

  例句:None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.

  三.宾语从句的语序

  宾语从句的语序是陈述句语序即:连接代词/副词+主语+谓语+其他成分。例句如下:

  I don’t know what they are looking for.

  Could you tell me when the train will leave?

  Can you imagine what kind of man he is?

  四.宾语从句的时态

  主句是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。

  例句:The headmaster hopes everything goes well.

  主句是过去时态,从句须用过去时态的某种形式。

  例句:She was sorry that she hadn’t finished her work on time.

  当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实时,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般现在时态。

  例句:The teacher told his class that light travels faster than sound.

  五.宾语从句的特点

  宾语从句可以作及物动词、介词及形容词的宾语。

  宾语从句的语序一律用陈述句语序。

  连接词that引导宾语从句在句中无词义,不充当句子成份,多数情况下可以省略。

  whether 和 if 都可引导宾语从句,但 whether后可紧跟or not;whether从句可作介词的宾语。

  如果从句太长,可以用形式宾语it.

 

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