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学术征稿--表语从句-曹红英

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作者:新航道留学教师-曹红英

  表语从句是我们常用从句之一,它放在连系动词之后,充当复合句中的表语。

  A.可接表语从句的连系动词

可接表语从句的连系动词有be, look, seem, sound, appear等。

例:China is no longer what she used to be. 今日的中国不再是过去的中国了。

  B.as, as if,though引导的表语从句

  He looked just as he had looked ten years before. 他看起来还与十年前一样。

  C.because, why引导的表语从句

  I think it is because you are talking too much. 我想这是因为你话说得太多。

表语:说明主语的性质、特征、状态或身份,说明主语是什么或者怎么样。总之表语是对主语的解释和说明,是主语具体化,并且常与连系动词一起使用。

  表语从句:在复合句中作表语的从句, 就叫做表语从句。表语从句一般放在系动词之后,结构是“主语+系动词+表语从句”。

学术征稿--表语从句-曹红英

  ★连系动词:be动词、表示持续的系动词(keep, remain, stay)、感官动词feel(摸起来,感觉) , smell(闻起来) , sound(听起来) , taste(尝起来,吃起来) 等、表示变化的系动词(become, grow, turn, fall, get, go,)、表终止的系动词prove, turn out(结果是,证明是)seem, appear(看起来……)

  连系动词通常不用于被动语态和进行时态中。

  He has become what he wanted to be ten years ago.

  他已经成为了他10年前想成为的样子。

  1.表语从句的引导词

  ①从属连词

  that / whether /as if /as though/as/because

  (1) that引导表语从句本身没有词义,在句中只起连接作用,不充当句子成分,一般不能省略。

  That fact is that more than seventy percent of the earth’s surface is covered by water.

  连接词that一般不能省略,但当主句中含动词do的某种形式时,that可以省略。

  What I want to do is (that) I can go up to him and thank him. 我想做的事是走到身边去感谢他。

  (2) whether引导表语从句表示“是否”,但不充当句子的成分。

  The question is whether we can finish our work by tomorrow evening.

  if 与whether均意为“是否”,但引导表语从句时,只能用whether, 不能用if

  (3)as if/though“好像”,引导表语从句时要注意语态。

  如果句中的情况与事实不相符,从句多用虚拟语气。如果从句表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去式;如果从句表示与过去事实相反时,谓语动词要用“had + 过去分词 ”,如果从句表示将来的可能性不大,用would (might ,could )+动词原形。

  Li Lei is now in a new jacket. He looks as if he were an American boy. (现在事实相反)

  The girl is giving us a vivid description of the moon. It seems as if she had been to the moon many times. (与过去事实相反)

  It looks as if it might rain. (与将来事实相反)

  但是,如果as if/though引导的表语从句所表示的与事实相符,从句则用陈述语气。

  The clouds are gathering. It looks as if is going to rain.

  (4) as引导表语从句

  He looked just as he had looked ten years before.

  他看起来还与十年前一样。

  (5) because引导表语从句

  常用结构:This/That/It is/was because...

  That is because I don’t like Chinese.

②连接代词

  who/whom/whose/what/which/whoever/whatever/whichever/whomever,在表语从句中做主语、宾语、表语和定语。

  Tom is no longer what he used to be. (what做表语)

  The problem is who is fit for this job. (who做主语)

  This is what I want to tell you. (what做宾语)

  The problem is whose work is the best. (whose做定语)

  ③连接副词

  when/where/how/why,在表语从句中做状语。

  The question is how he did it. 问题是他是如何做此事的。

  The question is where we can live.问题是我们能住在哪儿。

  2.特例强调

  (1)reason做主语或主语中包含事件的起因时,后面的表语从句表示原因时要用that来引导,而不用because;why引导主语从句做主语时,表语从句用that引导,不用because

  The reason is that he got up late.

  Why he is late is that he got up late.

  (2)that is why/because

  ①That is why ...是常用句型,其中why引导的从句在句中作表语,该句型通常用于针对前面已经说过的原因进行总结。That is the reason why ...That is why ...是同义的,“这就是……的原因/因此……”,但是从语法结构上讲That is the reason why ...中的why引导的是一个定语从句。

  That is why she failed to pass the exam.

  那就是她考试不及格的原因。(why 在表语从句中充当原因状语)

  That is the reason why she failed to pass the exam.

  那就是她考试不及格的原因。(why 在定语从句中充当原因状语)

  ②That is because...句型中从属连词because引导的名词性从句在此作表语,这也是个常用句型,意为“这就是因为……”。

  That is because I got up late. 这是因为我起床迟了。

  ③“That is because...”与“That is why...”之间的不同在于“That is because...”指原因或理由, “That is why...”则指由于各种原因所造成的后果。

  I was angry. That was because he didn’t understand me.我生气是因为他不理解我。(表语从句强调原因)

  That’s why he got fired from that firm.那正是他被公司解雇的原因。(表语从句强调结果)

  (3)The reason (why.../for...)is /was that... “...的原因是...

  The reason for his absence is that he got up late.

  The reason why he is absent is that he got up late.

  他缺席的原因是他起床迟了。

  (4)使用虚拟语气的表语从句

  在表示建议、劝告、命令、计划含义的名词后的表语从句,谓语动词需用“should+动词原形”表示虚拟语气,should可省略。常见的词有:advicesuggestionorderrequestproposalplanidea等。

  My suggestion is that we (should) start early tomorrow.我的建议是我们明天一早就出发。

 


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